LEVIN FAMILY HEALTH - Open 1st August 2023


Gary says... Prostate Cancer is one issue that Men are too shy to discuss this matter?

This content has been medically reviewed by:

Dr. Pawan Katti

M.S., M.Ch., F.MAS Urology, 13 years of experience of research

Prostate cancer is something very few men want to discuss or even acknowledge, because in part, it is having to talk about your manhood or the area of your manhood, but it can also be the most devastating health concern facing many men today if left untreated or undiagnosed.

Myth 1: Prostate cancer surgery will end your sex life and cause urine leakage.

Myth 2: Only elderly men get prostate cancer.

Myth 3: You have to start treatment right away.

Myth 4: A high PSA score means you have prostate cancer.

Myth 5: If you get prostate cancer, you’ll die of the disease.

The following article gives clear evidential information for men to make a more informed decision on what should be recognised as an easy exam that can help to alleviate misconceptions and arguments about a procedure that could save a life. As part of MENS Health today, Gary says be aware and don't be afraid.

A cancer of the prostate gland, a part of the male reproductive system. Prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. This causes blood in urine, blood in semen, painful ejaculation and erectile dysfunction.

Causes: Prostate cancer develops when the prostate cells undergo genetic changes.

Symptoms: Changes in urination, painful ejaculation, and erectile dysfunction are the main symptoms.

Diagnosis: The laboratory tests and imaging tests are recommended for screening and confirming the presence of prostate cancer.


  •    Treatable by a medical professional.

  •    Diagnosed by medical professional.

  •    Often requires lab test or imaging.

  •    Can last several years or be lifelong.

  •    Common for ages 50 and older.

  •    May be dangerous or life threatening.

  •    Family history may increase likelihood.

 Stages of prostate cancer: usually determined through the Gleason score.

      1.      Stage I: Early-stage cancer confined to a small area in the prostate.

      2.      Stage II: Cancer is large and involves both sides of the prostate.

      3.      Stage III: Cancer has spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes.

      4.      Stage IV: Cancer has spread to other organs of the body, including bones.


Early-stage prostate cancer may not cause any signs or symptoms. Symptoms commonly noted during the advanced stage include:

     ·        Trouble urinating

     ·        Frequent urination

     ·        Decreased force of urination

     ·        Difficulty starting or stopping urine stream

     ·        Blood in semen

     ·        Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area

     ·        Bone Pain


A prostate cell becomes cancerous due to a change in its gene. The exact cause for this change is unknown. The following are risk factors:

     ·        Advanced age

     ·        Māori / Pacific Island Men are at higher risk

     ·        Family history

     ·        Obesity


The laboratory tests and imaging tests are recommended for screening and confirming the presence of prostate cancer.

·        Digital rectal examination (DRE)

     o   Inserting a gloved finger into the rectum to check the prostate gland adjacent to it.

·        Blood test

     o   to check for prostate specific antigen (PSA).

·        Ultrasound

     o   Uses a small sized probe inserted into the rectum to obtain images of the prostate.

·        Biopsy

     o   A small sample of the prostate mass is taken for microscopic examination to assess the type and severity of cancer.


Treatments include chemotherapy, medications to stop hormone activity, radiation therapy, and surgery. These can be used alone or in combinations to treat cancer.


The complications include:

     ·        Spread of cancer to nearby organs such as urinary bladder and rectum

     ·        Spread of cancer to lymph nodes

     ·        Erectile dysfunction

     ·        Urinary incontinence


There are no definite measures to prevent prostate cancer. The risk can be reduced by following certain precautionary measures such as:

     ·        Eat a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables

     ·        Cut down on fatty foods

     ·        Have a regular exercise regimen

     ·        Remain physically active

     ·        Maintain a recommended weight

     ·        Avoid smoking and alcohol

Questions To Ask Your Doctor

     ·        Is the cancer in a curable stage?

     ·        Should I make any special preparations for any of the tests?

     ·        Are there any side effects to any of the treatments?

     ·        Are there any chances for the cancer to recur?